The appreciable developments in the healthcare sector are attributable to the
strengthening of the health infrastructure in the country, and a focused
approach by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The Government has increased
budget outlay by 335% to Rs 3 lakh crore in 12th Plan for healthcare to achieve
universal and inclusive healthcare for all citizens. Moreover, under the
National Health Mission (NHM) there are two subcomponents namely National Rural
Health Mission (NRHM) and National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) which aim to
provide accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural as well as
The National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a sub-mission of National Health
Mission (NHM) was approved by the Cabinet on 1st May, 2013. It envisages to
meet health care needs of the urban population with the focus on urban poor, by
making available to them essential primary health care services and reducing
their out of pocket expenses for treatment. In the 12th Plan an allocation of
Rs. 15,143 crores has been made for National Urban Health Mission.
NRHM was launched by the Government over eight years ago and substantial
progress has been achieved under it. More than Rs. 1, 11, 000 crores has been
released by the Health Ministry to 35 State Governments and UTs. Nearly 51,000
new health infrastructures have been created, including new construction and
up-gradation works to improve health facilities. More than 70,000 beds have
been added in Government health institutions for provision of essential and
emergency services across the country. Addition of nearly 1.6 lakh human
resources that include specialists, doctors, nurses, ANMs and para-medics and
nearly 9 lakh community health workers called ASHAs have been appointed in
villages to facilitate interface between the communities and health system.
Under NRHM National Ambulance Services, support free ambulance services to
provide patients transport in every nook and corner of the country connected with
a toll free number to a Call Centre. Over 15,000 basic and emergency patient
transport vehicles have been provided under NRHM. Besides these, over 3,000
vehicles have been empanelled to transport patients, particularly pregnant
women and sick infants from home to public health facilities and back. To
increase visibility and awareness- 102 & 108 ambulances are being
repositioned as “National Ambulance Service” with universal colour and design.
NRHM also provides for institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women
under the Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY). Substantial increase in institutional
deliveries has resulted in the steep decline of the IMR and MMR. The scheme is
operationalized in all the States with more than 12 million beneficiaries.
The Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK), launched in June 2011, entitles
all new-borns and children under one year of age besides pregnant women to
absolutely free and no expense services including free diagnostics, drugs,
consumables, food and blood, if required, besides free transport from home to
institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home.
Nearly 1 crore 23 lakh pregnant women and more than 12 lakh children have
benefitted in 2012-13.
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK)
was launched in February, 2013. It entitles children in the age group of zero
to eighteen years across the country to receive free health screening services
and free treatment including surgeries, where required. An estimated 27 crore
children are to be covered across the country eventually, with screening for 30
common health conditions for early detection of: Defects, Diseases,
Deficiencies and Developmental disorders. More than 1 crore 86 lakh children
screened; more than 7 lakhs 64 thousand children referred; more than 90
thousand children have availed free secondary or tertiary health care
The Government has implemented Home Based Newborn Care up to 42 days of life
through ASHAs, Newborn care corners (NBCC) at delivery points and training of
health care providers in Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram(NSSK) for effective
essential newborn care is a key component of the newborn continuum of care have
been established. And Special New Born Care Units (SNCUs) at FRUs/DH and
Newborn Stabilisation Units (NBSUs) have been established to provide care to
sick, low birth weight and preterm newborns.
For management of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition, 872 Nutrition
Rehabilitation Centres have been operationalized in the country till December
2013. Training Package for Facility Based Management of Children with Severe
Acute Malnutrition has been shared with the States in 2013.
The Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK), launched recently, aims to
bring in several new dimensions like- mental health, nutrition, substance
misuse, gender based violence and non-communicable diseases. The programme
introduces community based interventions through peer educators. The strategic
approach to RMNCH+A (Reproductive, Maternal, New born, Child Health +
Adolescent) in which `A` denotes adolescents
To meet the challenge of high prevalence and incidence of anaemia amongst
adolescent girls and boys, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched
the Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) Programme for 10-19 years
adolescent population. Also the National Iron + Initiative was launched for
prevention and treatment of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among different age groups.
Under National Iron + Initiative initiative it is envisaged to ensure provision
of IFA supplementation and therapeutic management of mild, moderate and severe
anaemia in the most vulnerable groups – children (6months- 10 years),
adolescents (10-19 years), pregnant and lactating women and women of
reproductive age group (15-45 years) through a continuum of care approach.
The National Programme for the Health Care of Elderly (NPHCE) addresses health
related problems of elderly people. The basic aim of the NPHCE programme is to
provide separate, specialized and comprehensive health care to the senior
citizens at various levels of state health care delivery system including
Government of India initiated an integrated National Programme for Prevention
and Control of Cancers, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS).
The Government has launched some of new vaccines like indigenously developed JE
Vaccine (JENVAC) in 2013. Also, Hepatitis B vaccine and second dose of measles
vaccine are now part of the Universal Immunization Programme. Pentavalent, a
combination vaccine, which includes DPT + Hep-B + Hib has been introduced in
eight states: Kerala, Tamil Nadu in December 2011 and Puducherry, Goa, Haryana,
Gujarat, Karnataka and J & K in 2012-13. This ensures complete immunization
against five diseases and also reduces the chances of an adverse event
following immunization due to less injection load. Government of India earlier
provided only one JE dose and now has introduced two doses of JE vaccine under
Routine Immunization with first dose at 9-12 months and 2nd dose at 16-24
months with effect from 1st April 2013.
The Government has also launched Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization (RDB)
Thalassemia Diagnostic Kit and AV Magni-Visualiser the screening device for
cervical cancer in December, 2013 and indigenously developed Diabetes Screening
System and Test Strips in January 2014.
Efforts have been made to increase the number of doctors the Government
rationalized the land use norms for setting up New Medical Colleges, bed
occupancy norms, retirement age of faculty, and teacher student ratio was
relaxed from 1:1 to 1:2 generally and 1:3 in some specific cases for
post-graduate courses. The availability of MBBS seats has gone up from 33,567
to 51,979, i.e. an increase of 18,412 seats or almost 55%. During the same
period, the number of PG seats has increased from 13,838 to 23,931 i.e. an
increase of 10,093 seats or almost 73%. Within this period, 97 new medical
colleges, including six new AIIMS, have been established raising the number of
Medical Colleges from 290 to 387, which is all time high. Similarly, 19
Government Medical Colleges have been up-graded as super speciality hospitals.
Together the 6 new AIIMS, and 19 up-graded institutions would provide
speciality and super-speciality care in all disciplines with a net addition of
11,390 beds covering 27 locations spread across the country.